ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
An adjective is a kind of word that modifies a noun. Nouns are words that name a place, a person, a thing, or an idea. An adjective is a word that gives more information about the noun that goes with it. As a rule, in English, the adjective comes before the noun it describes. It is also a part of speech.
Attributive adjective are part of the noun phrase headed by the noun they modify; for example, happy is an attributive adjective in “happy people”. In some languages, attributive adjectives precede their nouns; in others, they follow their nouns; and in yet others, it depends on the adjective, or on the exact relationship of the adjective to the noun. In English, attributive adjectives usually precede their nouns in simple phrases, but often follow their nouns when the adjective is modified or qualified by a phrase acting as an adverb. For example: “I saw three happy kids”, and “I saw three kids happy enough to jump up and down with glee.” See also Postpositive adjective.
Predicative adjective are linked via a copula or other linking mechanism to the noun or pronoun they modify; for example, happy is a predicate adjective in “they are happy” and in “that made me happy.” (See also: Predicative expression, Subject complement.)
Demonstrative adjectives are used to demonstrate or indicate specific things. This, that, these and those are all demonstrative adjectives.
- If I hear that parrot again, I will call the RSPCA.
(That is a demonstrative adjective. It refers to a specific parrot.)
- Medals will only be given to those runners who complete the marathon in less than 8 hours.
(Those is a demonstrative adjective. It refers to specific people.)
An adverb can be added to a verb to modify its meaning. Usually, an adverb tells you when, where, how, in what manner, or to what extent an action is performed. Many adverbs end in ly — particularly those that are used to express how an action is performed. Although many adverbs end ly, lots do not, e.g., fast, never, well, very, most, least, more, less, now, far, and there.
Types of Adverbs
Although there are thousands of adverbs, each adverb can usually be categorized in one of the following groupings:
- Adverbs of Time
Adverbs of time describe when something happens.
- Press the button now.
(now – adverb of time)
- I have never been.
(never – adverb of time)
- I tell him daily.
(daily – adverb of time)
- Adverbs of Place
Adverbs of place describe where something happens. Most adverbs of place are also used as prepositions.
- Daisies grow everywhere.
(everywhere – adverb of place)
- I did not put it there.
(there – adverb of place)
- Adverbs of Manner
Adverb of manner describe how something happens. Where there are two or more verbs in a sentence, adverb placement affects the meaning.
- He passed the re-sit easily.
(easily – adverb of manner)
- The lion crawled stealthily.
(stealthily – adverb of manner)
- Adverbs of Degree
- That is the farthest I have ever jumped.
(farthest – adverb of degree)
- He boxed more cleverly.
(more cleverly – adverb of degree and manner.)