A. Affirmative Agreement
When indicating that one person pr thing does something and then adding that another does the same. Use the word so or too. To avoid needless repetition of words from the affirmative statement, use the conjunction and followed by a simple statement using so or too. The order of this statement will depend on whether so or too is used.
- When a form of the verb be is used in the main clause, the same tense of the verb be is used in the simple statement that follows.
affirmative statement (be) + and + subject + verb (be) + too
so + verb (be) + subject
e.g. I am hungry. You are hungry
– I am hungry and you are too
– I am hungry and so are you
- When a compound verb (auxiliary+ verb), for example, will go, should do, has done, have written, must examine, etc. occurs in the main clause, the auxiliary of the main verb is used in the simple statement, and the subject and verb must agree.
Affirmative statement + and + subject + auxiliary only + too
so + auxiliary only + subject
e.g. They will work in the lab tomorrow. You will work in the lab tomorrow.
– They will work in the lab tomorrow and you will too
– They will work in the lab tomorrow and so will you
- When any verb exceptbe appearswithout any auxiliaries in the main clause, the auxiliary do,does, or did is used in simple statement. The subject and verb must agree and the tense must be the same.
Affirmative statement + and + subject + do, does, or did + too
(single verb except be) so + do, does, or did + subject
e.g. Jane goes to that library. My sister goes to library
– Jane goes to library and my sister does too
– Jane goes to library and so does my sister
B. Negative Agreement
Either and Neither function in simple statements much like so and too in affirmative sentences. However, either and neither are used to indicate negative agreement. The same rules for auxiliaries, be and do, does, or did apply.
Negative statement + and + subject + negative auxiliary or be + either
neither + positive auxiliary + subject
e.g. I didn’t see Jane this morning. John didn’t see Jane this morning.
– I didn’t see Jane this morning and John didn’t either
– I didn’t see Jane this morning and neither did John
She hasn’t seen the movie yet. I haven’t seen the movie yet.
– she hasn’t seen the movie yet and I haven’t either
– she hasn’t seen the movie yet and neither have .
To make a sentence negative, add the negative particle not after the auxiliary or verb be. If there is no auxiliary or be, add the appropriate form of do, does, or did and place in word not after that.
John is rich John is not rich
Mark has seen Bill Mark has not seen Bill
The following examples contain no auxiliary and thus use do, does, or did.
e.g. Marvin likes apple Marvin does not like apple
They went to bank They did not go to bank
If there is a noun in the complement of a negative sentence, one should add the particle any before the noun.
Some affirmative sentences
Any negative sentences and question
e.g. John has some money
John doesn’t have any money
Hardly, barely, rarely, seldom, etc.
Remember that in an English sentence it is usually incorrect to have two negatives together. This is called a double negative and is not acceptable in standard English. The following words have a negative meaning and, thus, must be used with a positive verb
Hardly almost nothing
Barely mean or
Scarcely almost not at all
Seldom mean almost never
She scarcely remembers the accident (she almost doesn’t remember the accident)
We seldom see phone of these animals (we almost never see photos of these animals)
A command is an imperative statement. One person orders another to do something. It can be preceded by please. The understood subject is you. Use the simple form of the verb.
Close the door leave the room
Please turn off the light Open your book
Negative commands: A negative command is formed by adding the word don’t before the verb.
Don’t close the door
Please don’t turn off the light
Indirect commands: Usually the verbs order, ask, tell, or say are used to indicate an indirect command. They are followed by the infinitive (to + verb).
Kenny asked Bill to turn off the light
The policeman ordered the suspect to be quite
Negative Indirect commands: to make an indirect command negative, add the particle not before the infinitive.
Subject + verb + complement + not + (verb in infinitive)
The teacher told Christ not to open the window
Please tell Jeime not to leave the room.