The subject of a sentence is the noun, pronoun or noun phrase that precedes and governs the main verb. The subject is the part of the sentence that performs an action or which is associated with the action.

For Example  :

  • David plays the piano

The subject “David” performs the action of  “playing the piano”.

  • The police interviewed all the witnesses.

The subject “The police” performs the action of  “interviewing all the witnesses”.

To determine the subject of a sentence, first isolate the verb and then make a question by placing “who?” or “what?” before it. Having identified the Subject, we can see that the remainder of the sentence tells us what the Subject does or did. We refer to this string as the “predicate” of the sentence.

For Example  :

  • Who plays the piano?

→  “David” ( = Subject)

→  “plays the piano” ( = predicate) tells us what David does.

  • Who interviewed all the witnesses?

→  “The police” (= Subject)

→  “interviewed all the witnesses” ( = predicate) tell us what the police did.

Forms other subjects :

(single noun)

  • Ice cream is delicious.
  • Coffee contains caffeine.
  • John teaches English.

(noun phrase)

  • Fried chicken is my favorite food.
  • Brown coffee tastes better than the black one.
  • The new blue hat is Edi’s.

Subject Pronoun, yaitu I, You, We, They, He, She, It.

  • We went to beach yesterday.
  • He tells superstitious things to all people.
  • It looks fatter than before.


Verbs are a class of words used to show the performance of an action (do, throw, run), existence (be), possession (have), or state (know, love) of a subject. To put it simply a verb shows what something or someone does.

The verb forms, among others:

  • Minimal form one word.


  1. Emma eats greedily.
  2. We bought a new car.
  3. She makes toys.
  4. We are hungry.
  5. He is a funny boy.
  • Shaped a phrase, called a verb phrase (verb phrase). Verb phrase consists of one or more auxiliaries (auxiliary verb) and a play verb (main verb).


  1. Mona is going to Borneo tonight.
  2. Henry has been writing that financial report.
  3. The students have made good progress.


A complement is the part of a Sentence that comes after the Verb and is needed to make the sentence complete. The following are the most important types of complement used in English:


Eg: He’s a surveyor. (The Subject is completed by the complement to the verb. This is a Copula Verb.


Eg: She sent him the fax. (The sentence is completed by telling us what she sent to him.)


Eg: They’ll be happy. (The sentence is completed by the Adjective; this could be extended further, they’ll be happy to see us, etc..)


Eg: They talked about what needed doing. (The sentence is completed by the Phrase linked to the verb by the Preposition.)


Modifier tells the time, place or manner of the action. Very often it is a prepositional Phrase. Prepositional Phrase is a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun.

Note : A modifier of time usually comes last if more than one modifier is present.

e.g. of prepositional phrases :

in the morning, at the university, on the table

A modifier can also be an adverb or an adverbial phrase:

Last night, hurriedly, next year, outdoors, yesterday

e.g. John bought a book at the bookstore

Jill was swimming in the pool yesterday

Note :

The modifier normally follows the complement, but not always. However, the modifier, especially when it is a prepositional phrase, usually cannot separate the verb and the complement.

e.g. She drove the car on the street



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